Update: the non-paper is now available on the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) website for the preparatory process for the WSIS+10 review. The date for submissions of comments on the non-paper has also been extended from 14 September to 18 September. When this blog was originally published, the non-paper had not been published officially, but had been sent to the IGF 2015 MAG mailing list on preparations for the main session on WSIS+10.
First, if you want some background into what the non-paper is, who made contributions to it, and where it sits in the overall United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) preparatory process for the High Level Meeting on the WSIS+10 Review, see my other blog post, Background to the WSIS+10 non-paper.
The co-facilitators of the preparatory process have done a remarkable job of distilling almost 400 pages of contributions into just over 4 pages of the non-paper (not counting 2 pages of letters at the front). Unfortunately, unless you speak fluent UN-ese, even those 4 pages are likely to be a bit confusing.
A quick overview of the non-paper’s contents
Would you believe that the word “Internet” appears 15 times in the four and a bit pages compared to only 8 references to “ICTs” and 5 references to the “digital divide”? It seems that the World Summit on the “Information Society” has turned into 10-year review of the “Internet Society” (and no, I’m not talking about ISOC). This is both probably somewhat alarming to some stakeholders and also to be expected, given the Internet is becoming a fundamental tool for so much of the world’s activities these days.
In short, the non-paper says:
- A lot has been achieved, but there is still much to do to bridge evolving forms of the digital divide.
- ICTs can play a major role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
- Multistakeholder cooperation and engagement is supported.
- There is a need for gender equality.
- There should be “universal Internet access” by 2030.
- Governance of the Internet should involve all stakeholders.
- There is a need for the internationalization of Internet governance, including the full implementation of enhanced cooperation.
- Extend the mandate of IGF, but with a few things that need possible improvement.
- Cooperate globally to combat cybercrime and cyber-threats.
- Put more effort into financing ICT development activities.
- There needs to be better data collection and analysis to better evaluate progress on WSIS issues.
- Keep reviewing WSIS outcomes annually and have another review of WSIS in the future.
WSIS+10 non-paper reconstructed in plain English and bullet points
The WSIS+10 non-paper contains three main types of content:
- Basic statements of fact and/or general consensus beliefs about WSIS issues
- Principles that WSIS should follow
- Ways forward for post-2015 WSIS
Below is a summary of the suggested principles and post-2015 landscape. Please note that I have edited the text of the original non-paper for clarity and brevity. The headings, however, are straight from the non-paper.
Ways forward for post-2015 WSIS
- Increase the number of women with Internet access.
- ICTs are affordable and relevant
- Content is available in different languages and formats that are accessible to all people
- People have the capabilities to make use of ICTs.
- Encourage all stakeholders to take measures to achieve universal Internet access by 2030.
- Increase efforts in capacity building, technology transfer, and multilingualism.
ICT for development
- Use ICTs as a critical enabler to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
- Further the internationalization of Internet governance, including:
- Greater participation of developing countries
- The full implementation of Enhanced Cooperation.
- Extend the Internet Governance Forum‘s mandate for [x] years AND:
- Consider the need for clearer terms of reference for IGF’s governing structure, working methods, and outcomes.
- Continue building upon current efforts to ensure support for the participation of least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.
- Increase global efforts and cooperation in combating cybercrime and countering cyber-threats.
Follow-up and review
- Mobilize domestic public and private resources to spur ICT access and content creation, particularly in a wider range of languages.
- Review the lack of progress in the Digital Solidarity Fund.
- Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to developing countries that need the most assistance in achieving ICT goals.
- More capacity building.
- Give ICT a prominent profile in the new technology mechanism established by the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.
- Prioritize cross-cutting technical challenges that affect the implementation of Tunis Agenda Action Lines, including:
- The deployment of lPv6
- The deployment of Internet Exchange Points
- The resilience of international ICT networks and resources
- Improve data collection and measurement so it’s easier to assess how well WSIS goals are being achieved.
- Keep reviewing WSIS outcomes annually, and hold another overall review in the future.
Principles that WSIS should follow
- Commit to mainstream gender in WSIS implementation, notably through the Action Lines.
- The same rights that people have offline must also be protected online.
- All human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, to achieve the WSIS vision.
- Respect freedom of expression, the independence of press and the right to privacy.
- No person shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home, or correspondence,c onsistent with countries’ obligations under international human rights law.
ICT for development
- Mitigate the environmental impacts of ICT use and growth.
- Governance of the internet should be open, inclusive, and transparent, within the working definition of internet governance as ‘the development and application by governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.
- The management of the Internet encompasses both technical and public policy issues and should involve all stakeholder groups.
- Confidence- and security-building initiatives are important for the future of the information Society.
Follow-up and Review
- The Addis Ababa Action Agenda and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provide an important framework for ICT policy and investment.
- Public-private partnerships and universal access strategies, amongst other funding and financing approaches, are important ways to spur ICT access and content creation.
- Capacity-building remains a primary focus.
- Data collection and analysis is an important part of how WSIS goals are being achieved.
And to end with, a couple of observations
It is of potential concern that the non-paper differentiates between “cyberspace” and the “Internet”. “Cyberspace” is used as a catch-all term for Internet-related security issues. Is this a distinction that we really want to make? Do we want to be excluding security issues related to ICTs other than the Internet?
The inclusion of “cross-cutting technical challenges” in the non-paper demonstrates the increasingly blurred line between public policy (the responsibility of the Member States who will ultimately decide the contents of the final outcome document) and technical management of ICTs. This line was in reality always blurred, but when ICTs were less ubiquitous in the world, governments were less interested in exercising their rights to have a say in the possible public policy implications of those ICTs. But as stakeholders on the technical side of ICTs engage more with governments, there is also an expectation that governments will also engage more with non-government stakeholders as part of a two-way dialogue on the policy implications of technical issues. We are seeing this increasing expectation of greater interaction play out not only in the UNGA’s WSIS+10 process, but also in the ICANN accountability process that is currently underway.
 Anyone who participated in the Multistakeholder Preparatory Process for the WSIS+10 High Level Event in Geneva in 2014 will remember how contentious proposed text about encouraging women’s participation in the Information Society was. The change in stance between Geneva and New York demonstrates how different Member State views can be depending on the forum.